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Formerly Used Defense Sites

DOD is responsible for the environmental restoration (cleanup) of properties that were formerly owned by, leased to or otherwise possessed by the United States and under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense prior to October 1986.


There are 141 eligible properties within the inventory of Arizona for Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) located throughout Arizona. 

Contaminants of Concern

Contaminants found on FUDS sites can vary depending on how the property was used. Contaminants in soil from UST spills include petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene. There is a possibility of contamination from unexploded ordnance (UXO) and from skeet ranges with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lead.  Contaminants of concern at the site may change as new data become available.

Public Health Impact

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons may pose a risk to human health.   UXO debris may pose an explosive safety hazard. Discovery of UXO should be reported to the local law enforcement authorities and left untouched.

Action Taken

The Military Munitions Response Program (MMRP) is currently working on completing three remedial investigations (RIs) at FUDS designated properties including the Kingman Gunnery Range, Fort Huachuca, and Sahuarita Air Force Range.

The Kingman Gunnery Range site investigation was completed in 2010, and involved sampling primarily for lead from bullets used during WWII training exercises at the small arms ranges, berms, malfunction range and former moving target base. A former skeet range that was developed into a residential community was investigated and sampled for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which was found to be in exceedance of the Arizona soil remediation levels. The USACE completed a Time Critical Removal Action (TCRA) at the former skeet range area between 2013 and 2014 to remove contaminated surface soil from 55 affected residential properties at the source area. Following the TCRA, 66 additional parcels within the residential community were sampled and investigated from December 2014 to February 2017 as part of a Remedial Investigation (RI). A public open house meeting was held on August 21, 2018 to update the community of the RI results and the continued efforts needed for the RI. This included further investigation and sampling of remaining properties as step outs from the source area that was known as Phase I. ADEQ approved the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Phase I on September 13, 2018 and the RI step out sampling was completed for 60 parcels in October 2019. The RI is still ongoing.

The Fort Huachuca Final RI/FS report for the Munition Response Sites (MRS) was issued in December 2015.  The Proposed Plan subdivided MRS 02 into 3 new sites (MRS02, MRS03, and MRS04); a public meeting was held in July 2016 with several participants inquiring about the recreational areas of the MRSs along the San Pedro River.  ADEQ received the Final Decision Documents which were dated September 2016.  The USACE chose Institutional Controls ICs to Protect Current and Future Site Users, for MRS 01 (Charleston Maneuver Area) and 02 (Artillery/Mortar Range, Range Safety Buffer Area).  MRS 03 (Artillery/Mortar Range, Potential Target Area A) was determined to require additional investigation and field work, the USACE choose Digital geophysical mapping and Surface / Subsurface Removal of Munitions of Explosive Concern (MEC) to a depth of 2 feet below ground surface with ICs as the remedial action.  MRS 04 (Artillery/Mortar Range, Potential Target Area B), was selected to also be investigated further with MEC Removal from the Surface with ICs to Protect Current and Future Site Users chosen as the remedy. 

ADEQ approved the Sahuarita Air Force Range Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) work plan on June 14, 2017. Technical Project Planning (TPP) and Public Meetings were held in July 2017.  Stakeholders, including ADEQ, City of Tucson, AZ State Lands Department and USACE, discussed the QAPP work plan document during both of these meetings and field work began in July

A stakeholders group has met yearly since July 2001 with ADEQ, USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The stakeholder's group includes members of tribal nations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service, Arizona State Land Department, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Mohave County and Pinal County. The annual FUDS management action plan stakeholder's meeting or FUDS forum continues to meet each year.

Public meetings to inform the community of Kingman Gunnery range, Fort Huachuca and Sahuarita Air Force Range site activities are ongoing.  Public involvement plans for the RIs at Fort Huachuca and Kingman have been prepared by USACE.


Kingman Gunnery Range: Phase 2 RI sampling was planned for March 2020. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic this investigation was postponed pending DOD guidelines. The RI sampling resumed in September 2020 and will continue until the end of the year. The USACE is continuing to draft the RI report for the 181 previously investigated parcels. The RI report is currently scheduled for ADEQ review in November 2020. An addendum to the RI will be submitted to ADEQ to address the remaining 60 parcels after sampling is completed.

Fort Huachuca: All four response areas are awaiting funding for the implementation of Institutional Controls and MEC removal where applicable.   

Sahuarita Air Force Range: The munitions field investigation commenced after the TPP and Public Meetings in July 2017. Results of the RI and lengthy field work are pending for late 2018.